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English linguistics

    Table of contents
    1. 1. Suggested Literature
    1. The areas of linguistics. Definition and components of grammar. Other areas of linguistics. Distinction between phonetics/phonology, semantics/pragmatics, descriptive/prescriptive grammar.
    2. Language variation. Codes and situations. Language and dialect, standard and non-standard, speech and writing. Style.
    3. Language acquisition and learning. Native language vs. second language. The stages of child language acquisition.
    4. Language change. Historical linguistics. Sound change, grammatical change, lexical change. Language families, their branches. Proofs for the relatedness of languages.
    5. Speech sounds, phonemes, allophones, distributions, phonetic similarity, alternations, neturalization.
    6. The connection between spelling and pronunciation, regular and irregular spelling, the indication of tense and lax vowels in spelling.
    7. Segmental rules: r-dropping or r-insertion, breaking, broadenig, yod-dropping, tense/lax alternations (vowel shift). Structure dependence, strong- and weak-boundary affixes.
    8. Stress rules, word stress, compound stress, sentence stress, stress clash, stress shift; intonation.
    9. Syntactic aspects of words: word categories; distribution; categorial features; thematic and functional categories; subcategorisation; the lexicon.
    10. Structure: hierarchical structure (constituents); phrases; grammatical functions; tests for structure; the X-bar framework (heads, complements, specifiers); adjunction.
    11. The verb phrase: subcategories of verbs (unaccusative, causative, ergative, transitive, intransitive, prepositional, clausal complement, phrasal and multiple complement verbs); the role of light verbs; aspect and the role of auxiliary verbs.
    12. Clause structure: tense and inflections (finite and non-finite), the subject, the complementiser system (and its role in sentence force); wh-movement and inversion; non-finite clauses (ECM, raising and control structures).


    Suggested Literature

    • Victoria Fromkin & Robert Rodman.(1998). An Introduction to Language (Sixth Edition). Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
    • David Crystal.(1997) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge University Press.
    • Nádasdy Ádám (2006) Background to English Pronunciation (Phonetics, Phonology, Spelling). Budapest: Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó
    • Newson, Mark, Marianna Hordós, Dániel Papp, Krisztina Szecsényi, Gabriella Tóth and Veronika Vincze (2006) Basic English Syntax with Exercises, Bölcsész Konzorcium, Budapest.
    • your lecture notes
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